Industrial lubricating oils have a wide range of applications, and there are many types of base oils, such as: pure mineral oil, PAO polyolefin synthetic oil, polyether synthetic oil, alkylbenzene oil, and biodegradable lipid oil. When they become certain industrial lubricants, they cannot be mixed with each other. For example, after polyether synthetic oil is mixed with other industrial oils, its performance will be significantly reduced. Industrial lubricants have different additives in different applications. The hydraulic oil for outdoor use must be suitable for local temperature changes, and the hydraulic oil for indoor closed environment cannot be used. In addition, the use conditions of heavy-duty gear oils and molding oils are also different. Heavy-duty gear oils contain extreme pressure additives to ensure that they can be used in harsh environments. Molding oils are usually pure mineral oils without additives.
Industrial lubricants mainly include hydraulic oil, gear oil, steam turbine oil, compressor oil, refrigerating oil, transformer oil, vacuum pump oil, bearing oil, metal processing oil (liquid), anti-rust grease, cylinder oil, heat treatment oil, heat transfer oil, etc. . In addition, there are greases with lubricating oil as the base oil and thickening agent.
The users of industrial lubricants are companies from all walks of life. Generally, they use many varieties and large amounts, which not only depend on the price of the product, but also on the quality and technical characteristics of the product, as well as the quality of technical services.
The basic performance and main selection principle of industrial lubricants is viscosity.
1) Choose medium viscosity lubricating oil under medium speed, medium load and temperature not too high;
2) Under high load, low speed and high temperature conditions, select high-viscosity lubricants or lubricants with extreme pressure anti-wear agents;
3) Choose low-viscosity lubricating oil under low load, high speed and low temperature conditions;
4) In the wide range of high and low temperature, light load and high speed, as well as other special requirements, use synthetic lubricants.
If the load is large, the lubricating oil with high viscosity or good oiliness and extreme pressure should be selected. Conversely, if the load is small, a low-viscosity lubricant should be used. Intermittent or high-impact mechanical movements are easy to damage the oil film. Lubricants with higher viscosity or better extreme pressure should be used, or those with a smaller (harder) penetration degree made of this lubricating oil grease.
If the speed is high, it is necessary to choose a lubricating oil with a lower viscosity or a grease made with a lubricating oil with a lower viscosity; otherwise, use a lubricating oil with a higher viscosity or a grease made with a lubricating oil with a higher viscosity. For the selection of grease for high-speed rolling bearings, in order to make up for the mechanical stability and flowability of all greases, and to overcome the effect of centrifugal force, it is best to choose a thicker No. 3 grease; To reduce the bearing torque, especially the starting torque, use low consistency grease as much as possible.
Under high temperature conditions, lubricating oils with high viscosity, high flash point, good oiliness and good oxidation stability should be used or base oils and thickeners with good thermal stability (lithium soap, loaded calcium soap, loaded aluminum soap) etc.) made of grease with a higher dropping point. Under low temperature conditions, lubricating oil with low viscosity and low freezing point should be selected or a grease with good low temperature performance made from this oil. For friction parts with large temperature changes, lubricating oil with better viscosity-temperature performance or lubricating grease with a wide operating temperature range (such as general lithium grease) should be used.
In a humid working environment, or in working conditions where there is more contact with water, oils and greases with strong anti-emulsification ability and good anti-rust performance should be used. Sodium-based grease should not be used.
e) Accuracy of friction surface
The surface is rough, requiring the use of lubricating oils and greases with greater viscosity or less penetration. Conversely, lubricating oils and greases with lower viscosity or greater penetration should be used.
f) Friction surface position
On vertical guide rails and lead screws, lubricating oil is easy to lose, so lubricating oil with higher viscosity should be used. Grease should be selected for vertical bearings, which can reduce loss and maintain lubrication.
g) Lubrication method
In the circulating lubrication system, long oil change intervals and fast heat dissipation are required. Lubricants with low viscosity, good foam resistance and oxidation stability should be selected. In the splash and oil mist lubrication system, in order to reduce the oxidation of lubricating oil, lubricating oil with anti-oxidant and anti-foam additives should be selected. In the centralized lubrication system, in order to facilitate transportation, low consistency No. 1 or No. 1 grease should be used.
h) The role of industrial lubricants in various industries
Lubricating oil is used in various types of machinery to reduce friction, protect machinery and processing liquid lubricants, mainly for lubrication, cooling, rust prevention, cleaning, sealing and buffering. Lubricating oil accounts for 85% of all lubricating materials, and there are many types and brands. Now the world's annual consumption is more than 40 million tons. The general requirements for lubricants are:
1. Anti-friction and anti-wear, reduce frictional resistance to save energy, reduce wear to extend mechanical life, and improve economic benefits;
2. Cooling, requiring the frictional heat to be discharged out of the machine at any time;
3. Sealing, requiring anti-leakage, dust-proof and anti-air leakage;
4. Anti-corrosion and anti-rust, it is required to protect the friction surface from oil deterioration or external erosion;
5. Clean and flush, it is required to clean and remove the dirt on the friction area;
6. Stress dispersion buffering, load dispersion and shock buffering and shock absorption;
7. Kinetic energy transmission, hydraulic system, remote control motor and friction stepless speed change, etc.
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