What is the difference between the Acid Number,
Water-soluble Acid, and Saponification Number of transformer oil? Why measure
Water-soluble acid, acid number (AN) and
saponification number are all indicators that reflect the amount of acidic
substances contained in the transformer oil, but they have differences:
water-soluble acid refers to an inorganic acid that is soluble in water; acid number
refers to an acid that is soluble in ethanol, it is the numerical measure of
the transformer oil's acidity. In addition to water-soluble acids, it also
includes high-molecular organic acids; and saponification number refers to
acids and acidic substances dissolved in aqueous alkali solutions. It includes
not only acids measured by acid number, but also lipids that cannot be
reflected by acid number. Therefore, generally speaking, for the same oil
sample: saponification number ≥ acid number ≥ water-soluble acid. The difference between the saponification value
and the acid value is a factor in the production of sludge.
The above-mentioned acidic substances also
have the following effects:
1) It will corrode the equipment. Corrosion
to wires, solid insulation and metals, and some of their corrosion products are
also catalysts for oil oxidation, which will accelerate the aging of
2) Reduce equipment insulation. Increase
tanδ and decrease insulation resistance.
3) Affect the life of equipment. Decrease
the degree of fiber polymerization and embrittlement of cardboard.
4) It can indicate the quality of the new
transformer oil and the aging condition of the transformer oil in operation.
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